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  2. Campbell ML, Yarandi HN. Death rattle is not associated with patient respiratory distress: is pharmacologic treatment indicated? J Palliat Med. 2013;16(10):1255-9.
  3. Clark K, Sheehan C, Currow DC. Letter to the Editor Re: "Hyoscine Butylbromide for the Management of Death Rattle: Sooner Rather Than Later". Journal of pain and symptom management. 2019;57(1):e16-e7.
  4. van Esch HJ, Lokker ME, Rietjens J, van Zuylen L, van der Rijt CCD, van der Heide A. Understanding relatives' experience of death rattle. BMC Psychol. 2020;8(1):62.
  5. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. End of life care for infants, children and young people with life-limiting conditions: planning and management. [Internet]. London: NICE; 2016 [cited 2021 March 1]. Available from:
  6. Integraal Kankercentrum Nederland. Zorg in de stervensfase (1.0). 2010. Available from:
  7. Lokker ME, van der Heide A, Oldenmenger WH, van der Rijt CCD, van Zuylen L. Hydration and symptoms in the last days of life. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2021;11(3):335-43.
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  9. Wildiers H, Dhaenekint C, Demeulenaere P, Clement PM, Desmet M, Van Nuffelen R, et al. Atropine, hyoscine butylbromide, or scopolamine are equally effective for the treatment of death rattle in terminal care. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2009;38(1):124-33.
  10. Mercadante S, Marinangeli F, Masedu F, Valenti M, Russo D, Ursini L, et al. Hyoscine Butylbromide for the Management of Death Rattle: Sooner Rather Than Later. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2018;56(6):902-7.
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